Kamis, 30 September 2010

Raja Ampat offers amazing diving.


This is the final frontier, at the eastern end of Indonesia. Raja Ampat offers amazing diving and the most stunning topside
scenery of any dive destination on Earth. This is where Dr. Gerald Allen counted 273 fish species on a single dive.

If you’re looking for unusual sea life like the elusive wobbegong shark, or looking for Birds of Paradise, then a Grand Komodo
liveaboard cruise here is for you.
Water temperature: 24 – 29 C. Visibility: 10 – 30 M (seasonal). Year-round diving.
The Essence Of Raja Ampat Raja Ampat is not really about rare critters or seeing sharks, there are generally not as many of what one would call – classic critters
or big marine life. What is so special about this area is the scenery and in places the abundance of fish life. Dives where you are
inundated with vast schools of fish, on the best of dives fish seem to block out the sun there are so many. Mellow drift dives across the most beautiful coral slopes and channels, unique dives with heavily undercut mushroom shaped islands with gorgeous coral growth virtually to the surface. Some of the best coral gardens we
have seen are in this area.

Taking a live-aboard will allow you to see not just these great fish dives but also the topside highlights of this area too. The real
“ essence of Raja Ampat” is the incredible mix of wonderful topside
scenery with great reefs to dive on. Another highlight of this area is taking rides on the tender boat through the most outstanding island scenery of any dive destination anywhere.

Birds of Paradise
A short trek through a village and small plantation at Yapmanbaba village on Mansuar island, takes us under the canopy of prime forest where we can see these rare and mythical birds. If you don ’t do this it’s like going to Komodo and not seeing the dragons.
The sounds alone are worth the effort.

Mansuar Area
This is also the place where Dr. Gerald Allen found those 273 different species —see how many you can count! A great range of dive sites here makes this area stand out as being probably the best dive area in the whole of Indonesia for fish life. And not just for the species diversity; the schooling fish life is also incredible.
Most reefs here are vibrant with vast amounts of soft corals covering huge coral outcrops that in turn are surrounded by
thousands of small sweepers. There are critters as well, but not as many as in other areas, though for sure there are some great areas with rare and unusual marine life.

Waigeo (Aljui Bay)
A great area to anchor amongst the many small islands that make this area like a huge maze. There is also an interesting pearl farm here. The welcoming staff can show divers some of the processes that go into farming high-end pearls. Dive sites vary; many feature brilliantly colorful invertebrate-covered walls that are
dotted with caverns. These all seem to just fall from the rock faces that rise up above the water, being topped off with incredible tropical scenery. There are dive sites here that are great critter dives, with many kinds nudibranches and crustaceans to keep the macro lovers content. This area probably has the best macro site
in the northern RajaAmpat .

Kawe Area
More small islands here that are home to some incredible dive sites. Amongst these we encounter groups of small islands. Here
pelagic fish and many different schooling fish can be seen. Right on the edge of the Equator there are more impressive islands,
some looking like Bonsai trees sitting on a rock base. One very small island has what can only be described as being one the best topographical sites in the area. Walls surround most of the island,which can be circumnavigated easily on one dive. But there is much more, including a coral-covered seamount with hundreds
of schooling fish swimming around it, small plateaus, a small cavern, giant sea fans, and many black coral bushes surrounding a tall pinnacle. Some sites here are open to the seas and often
experience strong currents. Swells frequently make safety stops near the reef a little awkward.

Wayag Area
This has to be as good as it gets for topside scenery, with lagoons and small mushroom shaped islands. A short trek will reveal this island in all its glory, with great abovewater views of the lagoons
and islands you ’ve been diving in. The dive sites are home to great marine life, beautiful reef scenery, some schooling pelagic fish, and great topographical underwater landscapes. Also this is
home to a hidden blue lagoon with the only way in being from the ocean. Only us divers will ever see this sight.

Wai Island Area
Surrounded by white sand beaches and reefs that are home now to plane wrecks as well as great marine life. One plane lays on a reef slope covered in an array of beautiful soft corals, with the slope itself sometimes sporting various interesting critters. Reefs here have been impacted in the past, though in places the reef
crest is an area where you will want that over-under lens. With a tropical island backdrop, what more could you ask. At times it is possible to see large groups of manta rays cruising by here.

Lets visit here guys..!....

Rabu, 29 September 2010

8 Diver's Paradise in Indonesia


8 Diver's Paradise in Indonesia

More than 5 million square meters of water surrounds the island archipelago of Indonesia. Undoubtedly, it is a grand settlement for hundreds if not thousands of underwater species and beautiful,
colorful coral reefs. At once, this country offers plenty of spots that many diving enthusiasts can only dream about.
Thanks to the unusual political turmoil and usually exaggerated travel warnings, you'll rarely find this country on the average traveler's itinerary. Fortunately for the brave and adventurous, that
means less tourists, more peace and quiet, and a better chance of enjoying all the serene beauty on your own sweet time.

Here's a list of Indonesia's 8 Amazing Dive Spots for you to dream about,and one day try on your own!

1. Bintan Island.
Bintan Island, Riau Probably the most accessible island from outside Indonesia, this diving hotspot is less then an hour away from the hustle and bustle of Singapore. The island boasts of 18 km of pristine white beaches with rich marine life, and various dive spots for your
enjoyment and perusal.Not far from the northern coast line there is a small gorge 8
meters deep with a flat bottom, a perfect site for those trying out scuba diving for the first time. Another unique site here is Ship Wreck Point, where you can explore the remains of an old tanker boat sunk years ago in the depth of the sea.

2. Pulau Seribu. Pulau Seribu (Thousand Islands) Jakarta.
This unique area consisting of over a hundred small islands (thus the exaggerated name), has always been the playground for divers from Jakarta. From the various islands, a few of the more
popular ones are Pulau Kotok Besar, Pulau Kotok Kecil, Karang Bongkok, Pulau Sepa and Pulau Pantara.
Pulau Seribu is very accessible, you can simply rent a speedboat from the Marina, or a fisherman's boat from one of the various piers. About one to two hours worth away from Jakarta and you'll
be able to dive to your heart's content. Some of the larger islands provide better accommodation such as resorts and villas, but you'll have to rent a boat to visit the smaller islands – that’s where the beautiful corals are!

3. Karimun Java, Central Java
Another side of Java Sea that’s also a diver’s paradise is the island across the sea at Semarang, Central Java. This area, called Karimun Java, is a collection of 27 smaller islands surrounded by ocean water rich with blue coral Acropora reef. Divers can explore the remains of Indonour, an ancient merchant ship that sank long ago in 1955. An additional treat here is the various sea turtles that
hatches in the conservation park.

4. Derawan Island, East Kalimantan.
About 50 miles away from the Tanjung Redeb, Berau Province's capital, is an area covering several smaller islands. Its filled with spectacular corals and underwater caves for adventurous exploration. Derawan has more than 17 dive spots across the area, each with its own unique attractions for you to consider.
Some of the more popular sites are at

5. Pulau Sangalaki, Pulau Kakaban and Pulau Maratua.
At Sangalaki, you can find eagle rays, sting rays, leopard sharks and cuttlefishes as well. It is also the preferred hatching spot for giant green turtles, which you can view every night. The main attraction at Pulau Kakaban is the 5 square meters saltwater lake filled with stingless jellyfish and goby fish. And finally, at Pulau
Maratua, you'll find plenty large-sized fishes such as barracuda,tuna and mackerel. Sightings of hammerhead sharks, and up to eight species of whales are also often reported here.

6. Komodo Island, Flores.
This island is usually associated with the Komodo Dragons, with it playing host to these fiery gigantic lizards species. But in regards to scuba diving, this area also plays host to a score of dive spots
that are known to be some of the best in the country. From Sebayour Kecil, Pulau Tengah Kecil and Pantai Merah, various
underwater attractions are on offer, such as various mackerel, cod and grouper fish.
At Pantai Merah, or roughly translated as Red Beach, you’ll find not far from the coast a 5 meter drop-off filled with colorful fishes.
There are more dive sites at the western coast of Flores, such as Pulau Tatawa, Pulau Tatawa Kecil, Pulau Rinca and Pulau Nusa Node.

7. Nusa Penida, Bali
Pulau Nusa Penida, located east of Bali, is a popular dive spot amongst both local and international divers. About one hour away from Bali, this island has some of the healthiest coral reefs, with exceptional visibility of 15 to 35 meters.
For beginners, there are various dive spots at the northern coast of the island better suited for exploration. At the southern coast,there is also Blue Corner, Nusa Lembongan and Gamat, for those
more experienced divers looking for a challenge. The sun fish is often sighted at Crystal Bay, while manta birostris are common occurrences at Manta Point.

8. Bunaken, North Sulawesi.
This is another hotspot that is better known internationally compared to the rest, consisting of the smaller islands of Pulau Sialdoen, Gangga, Mantehage, Nine and an old volcano in the middle of the sea, Manado Tua (Old Manado). Snorkeling and diving are both extremely popular, with up to 16 dive spots spread amongst the islands in the area. Bunaken features a slope with up to 30 meters drop-off housing various species of fishes and marine life. Sightings of shark are not uncommon, so beware!

Indonesia is home to so many amazing diving destinations, its simply impossible to write about them all at one go!

Selasa, 28 September 2010

10 List of Desert Around the World.


Areas which receive as low as 250 millimeters of rainfall annually
are attributed as deserts.These areas receive little or no precipitation at all and have vegetation which ranges from being
sparse to none. Deserts are classified into various types, based on their geographical location. The types of deserts include trade
wind deserts, mid-latitude deserts, rain shadow deserts, coastal deserts, monsoon deserts, polar deserts, paleodeserts and
extraterrestrial deserts. Currently, it is accepted that one-fifth of the earth's surface is covered by these sandy barren lands.

So let's know some important facts about these major deserts in the following deserts of the world list.

10 List of Deserts Around the World

1. Antarctica Desert
With a whooping 13,829,430 square kilometers, Antarctica is the largest in the deserts of the world list. Situated in the Antarctic region of the southern hemisphere, this desert is also the fifth
largest of the seven continents of the world. An amazing fact about Antarctica is that it increases in its size during winter, due to the build up of sea ice around the coasts. More than 99% of the area is covered with ice and as on 21st July, 1983, the lowest temperature which was recorded in this continent was a chilling
-89.20C.

2. Sahara Desert
The world's largest among the hot deserts around the world and covering an area of 91,000,000 square kilometers, the Sahara
desert is known to be homed by 4 million people. In its northern parts, the desert has a sub tropical climate and in the south,a tropical one. The Sahara desert plants include grass, shrubs and trees. Cape hare, desert hedgehog, Barbary sheep, oryx, gazelle,deer, wild ass, baboon, hyena, jackal, sand fox, weasel and mongoose constitute the Sahara desert animals. Read more on Sahara desert facts.

3. Arabian Desert
This desert covers an area of 2,300,000 and stretches from Yemen to the Persian Gulf and Oman to Jordan and Iraq.
Calligonum crinitum, cornulaca arabica, cyperus conglomeratus are the typical plants of this desert and the wildlife include dromedary camel, dung beetle, civet, Egyptian vulture, flamingo,fox, gazelle, hare, hedgehog, arabian horse, hyena, ibex and jackal.

4. Gobi Desert
The word 'Gobi' itself means desert.Temperature ranges from -40 C in winter and 40 C in summer. Black-tailed gazelles,
marbled polecats, bactrian camels,Mongolian wild ass and sandplovers are the typical animals of this desert and sparse vegetation include bushes and a dozen kinds of grasses and herbs.

5. Kalahari Desert
The Kalahari desert is largely covered by reddish sand and has an area of 900,000 square kilometers. Apart from different types of reptiles and birds, this desert is home to brown hyenas, lions,meerkats and several species of antelope. Dry grassland and scrubby acacias constitutes the vegetation.

6. Patagonian Desert
The Patagonian desert is the largest desert in America and occupies 670,000 square kilometers. The climate is divided into 7 months of summer and 5 months of winter. The burrowing owl,lesser rhea, guanaco, tuco-tuco, mara and different species of eagle and hawk can be found in this region. Desert shrubs, tuft grass and aquatic grass on the outskirts are common to the Patagonian desert.

7. Great Victoria Desert
The largest desert in Australia having an area of 64,7000 square kilometers. Marble gums, mulga and spinifex grass comprise the typical vegetation of this desert and rock wallabies, parrots,snakes, wild camels, lizards and bilbies, comprise the wild life.

8. Great Basin Desert
492,000 square kilometers is the area occupied by the Great Basin desert. This basin is a series of a myriad of watersheds such as the Great Salt lake, Hamlin valley, Snake valley, Pine valley, Wah Wah valley, Tule valley , Rush valley and many more. Kit fox,coyote, skunk, black-tailed jackrabbit, ground squirrels, kangaroo
rat and many species of mice are the common inhabitants of this desert. The vegetation includes restricted range of plants from cactus, sage brush to saltbush species.

9.Chihuahua Desert
The second largest desert in North America, the Chihuahua desert covers a large area of about 629,000 square kilometers. The desert has a mild temperature which ranges from 35 – 400C.
Unlike other deserts, it is biologically more diverse and includes plants such as Agave, Creosote Bush, Mesquite Tree, Prickly Pear,
Sotol, Peyote and Lechuguilla. It has a wide range of animal species ranging from desert cottontail, black-tailed jack rabbit,
cactus mouse, kit fox, cactus wren to greater roadrunner. Reptiles
include mojave rattlesnake, coachwhip snake and new mexican whiptail lizard. Red-spotted toads and barred tiger salamander can also be found on this desert.

10. Sonoran Desert
The Sonoran desert is said to cover 310,000 squares kilometers and is the wettest desert in the deserts of the world list. Also
referred to as the Gila desert, its wildlife comprises of javelina,bobcat, skunk, jackrabbit, coyote, Mexican wolf and cottontail.This desert is also known for the famous saguaro cactus which
grows only in this place. Plants from agave family, palm family,cactus family, legume family and many others are all part of the flora of the Sonoran desert.

So you can see that there are no major differences between the environment and habitat among the different types of deserts which have been briefly described in the above deserts of the world list. These deserts do not have much to offer when it comes to the different factors which are necessary for survival.
However, they are still inhabited by different living species and have retained their attraction for those few desert lovers!

Sahara Desert Fact.


Sahara Desert Facts:

The Sahara desert covers around 9,000,000 square kilometers and the overall area is as large as the continental United States. The Sahara desert also has the reputation of being the world ’s largest
hot desert!

The landforms in this desert often undergo constant change.
These landforms are shaped as per the direction of the wind and the occasional rainfalls.Although being a desert area, one can notice annual rainfall in many regions of this vast land area. There are different climates witnessed in different regions such as the subtropical climate in
the northern land where as a tropical climate in the southern area.

Over the years, the climate of the Sahara desert has undergone humungous changes. This desert therefore, is known for its harsh climates so typical of all deserts!

This hot desert has annual temperatures that can exceed 30 degrees C. Some of the hottest months have temperatures
exceeding 50 degrees C. In the winters, the temperatures drop below freezing points. This itself explains the diverse climates of this hot desert.

Studies have revealed the changing size of the Sahara desert!
Observations made with the help of satellite photographs have proven this desert can shrink or even grow in size.

The Sahara desert is home to quite a few species of animals.Camels and goats are the only ones amongst the domesticated
animals one may see out here. Apart from these, the Saharan cheetah, the sand vipers, scorpions and monitor lizards can be found out here.

This desert has some of the tallest sand dunes and these can reach 189 meters in height. The land area also has stone plateaus,large gravel plains, dry valleys and even sand flats.

The Sahara desert has around 500 species of flora. These consist of mainly ephemeral plants known locally as Acheb. At some oases, close to the Nile Valley, one can find olive trees growing out
here. Vegetation is found in areas where the ground water reaches the surface of the land.

This place has mainly nomadic groups of people that move from place to place. Nomads wear a particular headdress known as Howli. These people are mainly engaged in trading and hunting.
The low population is due to the rather difficult conditions seen in the Sahara desert.

The Sahara desert stretches over areas of Northern Africa, from the Red Sea to the areas close to the outskirts of the Atlantic
Ocean. This desert shares it boundaries with the Atlas Mountains,the Mediterranean Sea, Egypt, Sudan and valley of the Niger River.

Emi Koussi is the highest peak that is seen in the Tibesti Mountains.This peak has a height of 3415 m.Farming is being practiced in certain areas of the Sahara desert with the help of drought-resistant plants. Some areas of this land have been transformed in order to prevent soil erosion.

This mysterious and vast place also has some of the most magnificent landscapes and despite harsh weather, it has attracted people to study details associated with the Sahara desert. This
desert is more than a hot and dry place, it is one of the most remarkable areas known to man!

Jumat, 24 September 2010

Indonesia's Famous Tourist Attractions and Activities.

What Are Indonesia's Famous Tourist
Attractions and Activities?

Bali
With its alluring mix of beaches,volcanoes, temples, stunning scenery, artistic and cultural wealth, the island has long been the jewel in the Indonesian tourism crown. Nail is the enclave of a unique and colorful form of Hinduism, and of its thousands of temples Besakih, Tanah Lot and Uluwatu are the three most impressive. The festivals celebrated at all these shrines are a colorful and vibrant celebration of the devout traditional lifestyle that has drawn tourists to the island for decades most visitors also
go to the southern beach resorts Kuta, a heady, hedonistic mix of hotels, shops, restaurants and nightlife, but there are plenty of quieter resorts around the coast, and a few secluded spots remain
for total relaxation. Those interested in art, crafts, music and dance usually head for Ubud, a cool, laid-back town with galleries,studios, performances and classes galore and plenty of local walks
among the rice-terraces to engage the more energetic. The still smoking Gunung Batur, in the volcanic centre of the island, is a popular climb, usually done in the pitch dark so as to arrive at the top in time to admire the glowing sunrise.

Gunung Bromo
The obligatory sunrise views of this mountain in east Java, with the peak and its equally stunning neighbours rising from an almost other worldly sea of sand, are simply spell binding. There are also plenty of wails to enjoy in this cool, attractive region.

Borobudur
Java's number-one tourist attraction, this colossal, multi-tiered temple is the world's largest Buddhist stupa. Over a thousand years old, the temple, though now ruined, is still surprisingly evocative, with over three thousand reliefs detailing scenes from everyday life and the path followed by the soul to enlightenment,
along with ancient tales illustrated the journey.

Lake Toba
In northern Sumatra, this is Southeast Asia's largest freshwater lake. Its central island, Samosir, is the heartland of the Toba Batak people and offers great scenery, trekking and relaxation, with the
option of visiting megalithic stone complexes, local villages and hot springs.

Orangutans
The animals at the orangutan rehabilitation centre at Bukit Lawang
in Sumatra are arguably the most famous example of Indonesia's wildlife. The centre aims to reintroduce into the wild orangutans that have been rescued from captivity; visitors here are welcome
to watch the twice-daily feeding sessions.

Komodo Dragons
An apparent throwback to the age of dinosaurs, these creatures,actually the world's largest lizards, live on Komodo in Nusa Tenggara, the chain of islands stretching between Bali and West
Papua. The largest ever recorded was more than 3m long and weighed in at 150kg, though most of the dragons aren't quite so enormous.

Diving
The highlight of many visits, Indonesia's marine life is startling in its diversity. Current centres for diving are Bali, Gili Islands off Lombok, and Sulawesi

Tanah Toraja
This region of Sulawesi is home to the Torajan people, who have a wealth of traditional architecture and ceremonies, most famously funerals. Also on offer are plenty of opportunities for trekking in the scenic highlands

Yogyakarta
The city is the heartland of Javanese arts; exhibitions of art and batik, and performances of music, drama, puppetry and dance abound, with courses available for visitors. The Kraton, the old walled city, is well preserved for architecture buffs, ans Yogyakarta is ideally placed for excursions into the surrounding
countryside and - if it hasn't blown its lid recently - treks up Gunung Merapi, Indonesia's most volatile volcano.

Nusa Tenggara
The most westerly of this string of islands, Lombok, is a great antidote to its more developed neighbors, Bali. Its highlights
include Gunung Merapi, Indonesia's second highest mountain,with a huge crater lake; the tiny Gili Islands off its north-west coast,and the unspoilt south-coast beaches. The further east you go
Nusa Tenggara, the less tourist infrastructure there is, so the more
time you'll need; highlights here include Sumba's unspoilt beacher and traditional ikat weaving and the three-coloured lake of Keli Mutu on Flores.

Baliem Valley.
In West Papua It's time-consuming and expensive to get here, and to really explore the area you'll need trek long distances and often sleep extremely rough. But the scenery is dramatic and splendid, and the tribes of the area are managing to retain an age old lifestyle
and culture, often despite considerable pressure from outsiders.

Surfing
G-land off the south coast of Java and Desert Point off the southwest coast of Lombok at Bangko. Bangko are just two of
many legendary Indonesian surf spots.
Staying in a longhouse The indigenous Dyak peoples in the interior of Kalimantan have retained their traditional beliefs and ways of life to varying degrees.
Their communal longhouse dwellings - long wooden structures raised on stilts - have survived and are being restored, and many welcome visitors

The Prambanan temple complex
.
The Hindu temples here, accessed from Yogyakarta in Java, are soaring, intricately carved structures dating from the ninth century AD. Visits at dawn and dusk are especially atmospheric.

Borobudur is the biggest temple in Indonesia.


Borobudur is the biggest temple in Indonesia. Borobudur temple is located in Magelang, Central Java, in addition of being a famous tourist attraction, this temple also becomes a center of worship for Buddhists in Indonesia, especially at every celebration of Waisak.

Borobudur temple is also known as "Monastery in the hills'' because it lies in the hills.
The temple was built around 800 BC or 9th century it has been established as one of the cultural heritage of UNESCO and it does not only makes proud for all people in Indonesia but also throughout the world. This Buddhist temple has 1460 relief panels and 504 Buddha effigies. Borobudur was built by Samaratungga,
one king of Old Mataram Kingdom, Sailendra descendants.
Gunadarma is the architect of record as someone who is successfully built this temple.

The base of Borobudur, called Kamadhatu, symbolizing human beings that are still bound by lust. Four levels mentioned above represents Rupadhatu, humans who have set themselves free from lust but still tied to appearance and shape.

Borobudur temple as a whole has ten levels consisting of six levels of a square,
circular level three circular and a main stupa as a peak. At every level there are several stupas. Altogether there are 72 domes besides the main stupa. In every stupa there is a statue of Buddha.

On the wall there is a wall relief of Borobudur temple which tells of
a legendary story of Ramayana. In addition, there are relief panels describing the condition of society at that time. All relief panels in Borobudur temple reflect the teachings of the Buddha. Hence, this
temple functions as educating media for people who want to learn Buddhism
With all the grandeur and mystery that is only natural that every person from around the world want to visit Borobudur.

Borobudur is the excellence and evidence of human intelligence has ever made in Indonesia. It also became the cultural attractions and major in Indonesia instead of Bali and Jakarta.

Kamis, 23 September 2010

Atlantis adalah Indonesia ?.


Atlantis, kita banyak mendengar tentang kota ini, yang konon memiliki peradaban yang sangat tinggi, tapi kemudian hilang
karena ditelan bencana besar.Legenda yang berkisah tentang “Atlantis”, pertama kali ditemui dalam karangan filsafat Yunani kuno: Dua buah catatan
dialog Plato (427-347 SM) yakni: buku Critias dan Timaeus.

Beberapa hipotesis merupakan hipotesis arkeologi atau ilmiah,sementara lainnya berdasarkan fisika atau lainnya. Banyak tempat usulan yang memiliki kemiripan karakteristik dengan kisah Atlantis (air, bencana besar, periode waktu yang relevan), tetapi tidak ada yang berhasil dibuktikan sebagai kisah sejarah Atlantis yang sesungguhnya.

Kebanyakan lokasi yang diusulkan berada atau di sekitar Laut Tengah atau disekitar Laut Hitam. Beberapa hipotesis yang lain
menyatakan Atlantis berada pada pulau yang telah tenggelam di Eropa Utara,atau di Laut Utara. Beberapa telah mengusulkan Al-Andalus atau Irlandia sebagai lokasi. Kepulauan Canary juga
dinyatakan sebagai lokasi yang mungkin, sebelah barat selat Gibraltar tetapi dekat dengan Laut Tengah. Berbagai kepulauan di Atlantik juga dinyatakan sebagai lokasi yang mungkin,terutama Kepulauan Azores. Pulau Spartel yang telah tenggelam di selat Gibraltar juga telah diusulkan.

Hingga pada akhir th 2005, Prof. Arysio Santos yang menerbitkan buku yang menggemparkan : “Atlantis the Lost Continents Finally Found”.
Didalam buku tersebut, secara tegas dinyatakannya bahwa lokasi Atlantis yang hilang sejak kira-kira 11.600 tahun yang lalu itu adalah di Indonesia. Beliau menunjukkan perbandingan yang
menunjukkan Indonesia adalah lokasi Atlantis yang hilang dibandingkan lokasi-lokasi perkiraan sebelumnya.

Dalam buku ini beliau membandingkan berdasarkan : Sistem irigasi, Keberadaan mammoth/gajah, Ukuran benua, Iklim Tropis,Keberadaan Kelapa dan Nanas, Konstruksi Megalitikum, Kekayaan
tambang dan lain-lain.
( http://atlan.org/articles/checklist)

Ilmu yang digunakan Santos dalam menelusur lokasi Atlantis ini adalah ilmu Geologi, Astronomi, Paleontologi, Archeologi,Linguistik, Ethnologi, dan Comparative Mythology.Plato bercerita bahwa Atlantis adalah sebuah negara makmur dengan emas, batuan mulia, dan ‘mother of all civilazation’ dengan
kerajaan berukuran benua yang menguasai pelayaran,perdagangan, menguasai ilmu metalurgi, memiliki jaringan irigasi,dengan kehidupan berkesenian, tarian, teater, musik, dan
olahraga.

Warga Atlantis yang semula merupakan orang-orang terhormat dan kaya, kemudian berubah menjadi ambisius. Para dewa kemudian menghukum mereka dengan mendatangkan banjir,letusan gunung berapi, dan gempa bumi yang sedemikian dahsyatnya sehingga menenggelamkan seluruh benua itu.

Kisah-kisah sejenis atau mirip kisah Atlantis ini yang berakhir dengan
bencana banjir dan gempa bumi, ternyata juga ditemui dalam kisah-kisah sakral tradisional di berbagai bagian dunia, yang
diceritakan dalam bahasa setempat.
Menurut Santos, ukuran waktu yang diberikan Plato 11.600 tahun SM, secara tepat bersamaan dengan berakhirnya Zaman Es Pleistocene, yang juga menimbulkan bencana banjir dan gempa
yang sangat hebat. Bencana ini menyebabkan punahnya 70% dari
species mamalia yang hidup saat itu, termasuk kemungkinan juga dua species manusia : Neandertal dan Cro-Magnon.

Sebelum terjadinya bencana banjir itu, pulau Sumatera, pulau Jawa, Kalimantan dan Nusa Tenggara masih menyatu dengan
semenanjung Malaysia dan benua Asia .
Sulawesi, Maluku dan Irian masih menyatu dengan benua Australia dan terpisah dengan Sumatera dan lain-lain itu. Kedua
kelompok pulau ini dipisahkan oleh sebuah selat yang mengikuti garis ‘Wallace’.

Posisi Indonesia terletak pada 3 lempeng tektonis yang saling menekan, yang menimbulkan sederetan gunung berapi mulai dari Sumatera, Jawa, Nusa Tenggara, dan terus ke Utara sampai ke
Filipina yang merupakan bagian dari ‘Ring of Fire’. Hingga terjadinya letusan gunung berapi secara berurutan, yang menyebabkan melelehnya lapisan es dan menimbulkan gempa dan tsunami yang menenggelamkan dataran rendah.

Benarkah hypothesis itu?? Dengan kecanggihan teknologi saat ini,yang memungkinkan pencarian di kedalaman laut, kebenaran seluruh hypothesis yang pernah ada tentang Atlantis mungkin
akan segera terungkap..

Bagaimana menurut anda? Benarkah bangsa Indonesia adalah keturunan bangsa Atlantis yang terselamatkan??

Sumber: http://www.beritaterkinionline.com/2009/10/benarkah-
indonesia-adalah-atlantis-yang-hilang.html

Atlantis the Myisterius Lost City


Around 350 BC, Plato wrote about a beautiful island in the Atlantic Ocean that went under the ocean waves in one day and one night. It took two books to describe the history and details of this almost magical island.

For years people have been looking for this mysterious lost city, Atlantis.
Plato describes the Atlantians as great engineers and architects. There were palaces, harbors, temples and docks. The capital city was built on a hill and surrounded by rings of water, which were joined by tunnels large enough for a ship to sail through. A huge canal connected the outer rings of water to the ocean. On the outskirts of the capital city there were huge fields where farmers grew the city's food. Past the field there were mountains where wealthy villagers lived. Plato goes great detail about the amazing buildings - complete with hot and cold fountains, shared dining halls and stone walls covered with precious metals.

For over two thousand years the story of Atlantis was just a story. Then, in the late 1800s, an American named Ignatius
Donnelly became fascinated with the story and wrote a book called Atlantis, the Antediluvian World, which became a
bestseller. Ignatius studied flood history from Egypt to Mexico and believed that Plato was recording an actual natural disaster.

Since then, several books have been written about the lost city.
The most believable theory about Atlantis came from the Greek archaeologist Angelos Galanopoulos in the late '60s. He
theorized that around 1500 BCE, a massive eruption from a volcano ripped apart the island of Santorini in the Mediterranean and probably wiped out most of the civilization on the Greek islands and regions of Greece. Angelos suggested
this disaster is the one that sank Atlantis. If this is so, then he must have his dates wrong - or does he? He reasons that when
the story was being translated, the Egyptian symbol for 100 (a coiled rope) was mistaken for the symbol for 1000 (a lotus flower). This changes the date from 9000 years ago to 900 years ago. The only thing wrong with this explanation is that Plato specifically said the city was near the Pillars of Hercules, which are thought to be nowhere near Greece.

The exact location of the lost city of Atlantis has been questioned by many people, like British Royal Air Force photo
interpreter J.M. Allen. He is convinced Atlantis is in Altiplano, near the Andes Mountains, in Bolivia. The famous psychic channeler Edgar Cayce believed the remains would be found off the coast of
Florida near Bimini Island. Other people think it's lost somewhere in Central America, the China Sea or Africa. Others believe that Atlantis is nothing more than a myth.

Rabu, 22 September 2010

Petra Kota Batu yang Hilang.


Petra Kota Batu yang Hilang.

Petra adalah kota yang didirikan dengan memahat dinding-dinding batu di Yordania. Petra berasal dari bahasa Yunani yang berarti 'batu'. Petra merupakan simbol teknik dan perlindungan.
Kata ini merujuk pada bangunan kotanya yang terbuat dari batu-batu di Wadi Araba, sebuah lembah bercadas di Yordania. Kota ini didirikan dengan menggali dan mengukir cadas setinggi 40 meter.

Petra merupakan ibukota kerajaan Nabatean. Didirikan sembilan tahun sebelum Masehi sampai dengan tahun ke-40 M oleh Raja Aretas IV sebagai kota yang sulit untuk ditembus musuh dan
aman dari bencana alam seperti badai pasir.
Suku Nabatean membangun Petra dengan sistem pengairan yang luar biasa rumit. Terdapat terowongan air dan bilik air yang
menyalurkan air bersih ke kota, sehingga mencegah banjir mendadak. Mereka juga memiliki teknologi hidrolik untuk mengangkat air.
Terdapat juga sebuah teater yang mampu menampung 4.000 orang. Kini, Istana Makam Hellenistis yang memiliki tinggi 42 meter masih berdiri impresif di sana.

Kotanya Suku Nabatean Petra yang bisa ditempuh sekitar 3-5 jam perjalanan darat dari kota Amman, Yordania, dulu adalah ibukota suku Nabatean, salah satu rumpun bangsa Arab yang hidup sebelum masuknya bangsa Romawi.
Sebenarnya, asal usul suku Nabatean tak diketahui pasti. Mereka dikenal sebagai suku pengembara yang berkelana ke berbagai penjuru dengan kawanan unta dan domba.
Warga Petra awal adalah penyembah berhala. Dewa utama mereka adalah Dushara, yang disembah dalam bentuk batu berwarna hitam dan berbentuk tak beraturan. Dushara disembah berdampingan dengan Allat, dewi Bangsa Arab kuno.
Mereka sangat mahir dalam membuat tangki air bawah tanah untuk mengumpulkan air bersih yang bisa digunakan saat mereka bepergian jauh. Sehingga, di mana pun mereka berada, mereka bisa membuat galian untuk saluran air guna memenuhi kebutuhan
mereka akan air bersih.


Di akhir abad ke-4 Sebelum Masehi, berkembangnya dunia perdagangan membuat suku Nabatean memberanikan diri mulai ikut dalam perdaganan dunia. Rute perdagangan dunia mulai tumbuh subur di bagian selatan Yordania dan selatan Laut Mati.
Mereka lalu memanfaatkan posisi tempat tinggal mereka yang strategis itu sebagai salah satu rute perdagangan dunia.
Suku Nabatean akhirnya bisa menjadi para saudagar yang sukses dengan berdagang dupa, rempah-rempah, dan gading yang
antara lain berasal dari Arab bagian selatan dan India timur.

Letak yang strategis untuk mengembangkan usaha dan hidup,
serta aman untuk melindungi diri dari orang asing itulah alasansuku Nabatean memutuskan untuk menetap di wilayah batu karang Petra.
Untuk mempertahankan kemakmuran yang telah diraih, mereka memungut bea cukai dan pajak kepada para pedagang setempat atau dari luar yang masuk ke sana. Suku Nabatean akhirnya berhasil membuat kota internasional yang unik dan tak biasa.

Pada awalnya Petra dibangun untuk tujuan pertahanan. Namun belakangan, kota ini dipadati puluhan ribu warga sehingga berkembang menjadi kota perdagangan karena terletak di jalur
distribusi barang antara Eropa dan Timur Tengah.
Pada tahun 106 Masehi, Romawi mencaplok Petra, sehingga peran jalur perdagangannya melemah. Sekitar tahun 700 M, sistem hidrolik dan beberapa bangunan utamanya hancur menjadi puing.Petra pun perlahan menghilang dari peta bumi saat itu dan tinggal legenda.

Barulah pada tahun 1812, petualang Swiss, Johann Burckhardt memasuki kota itu dengan menyamar sebagai seorang muslim.
Legenda Petra pun meruak kembali di zaman modern, dikenang sebagai simbol teknik dan pertahanan.Dikelilingi Gunung
Petra di Yordania, adalah situs purbakala. Petra dikelilingi gunung.
Di sini ada gunung setinggi 1.350 meter dari permukaan laut. Inilah kawasan tertinggi di areal ini yang disebut Gunung Harun (Jabal Harun) atau Gunung Hor atau El-Barra.Gunung Harun paling sering dikunjungi orang. Para pengunjung
percaya, di puncak Jabal Harun inilah, Nabi Harun meninggal dan dimakamkan oleh Nabi Musa.

Di abad ke-14 Masehi, sebuah masjid dibangun di sini dengan kubah berwarna putih yang terlihat dari berbagai area di sekitar Petra. Harun tiba di wilayah Yordania sekarang ketika mendampingi Nabi Musa membawa umatnya keluar dari Mesir dari kejaran Raja Fir'aun.

Di abad ke-1 Sebelum Masehi, Kerajaan Nabataea yang kaya dan kuat, menjangkau wilayah Damaskus di utara dan Laut Mati Di selatan. Saat itu, Petra telah didiami sekitar 30 ribu penduduk. Di
masa itulah dibangun kuil agung.
Tahun 100-an Masehi, Romawi pernah menguasai wilayah ini.
Arsitektur di Petra pun terpengaruhi arsitektur Romawi.Pada 600 Masehi di Petra dibangun gereja. Abad ke-7 Masehi,
Islam hadir, dan pada abad ke-14, makam Nabi Harun di Jabal Harun menjadi tempat keramat dari umat Islam, selain kaum
Yahudi dan Kristiani.

Setelah Perang Salib di abad ke-12, Petra sempat menjadi 'kota yang hilang' selama lebih dari 500 tahun (lost city). Hanya
penduduk lokal ( suku Badui) di wilayah Arab yang mengenalnya.

Sumber: wikipedia

Petra the Lost City.

Hidden behind an impenetrable barrier of sandstone mountains,262 km of Amman, the capital of Jordan, Petra is one of the most beautiful ancient sites that is still in existence, in the entire world.
Petra Monastery What makes Petra unique and the main reason it was added to
the New Seven Wonders of the World list, is its rock-cut architecture. There are over 800 monuments carved into kaleidoscopic rock, including temples, monasteries, tombs, funeral halls, colonnaded streets and baths, all featuring intricate facades.
The layers of rock differs in color, from orange to cream and from red to dark-brown and they add to the beauty of Petra.

No one really when knows when the history of Petra began and there are yet no means to determine when this ancient wonder was founded. The name Petra means rock in Greek but it is not the original name of the settlement. It was known as Rekem in ancient times and controlled the many commercial routes that linked it to cities like Gaza, Damascus, Bosra and Aqaba. The rock-carved city was created by the Nabataeans, an evolved Arabic people that settled in the southern part of Jordan more than 2000 years ago. Their technical and artistic genius can be observed in the architectural legacy they left for posterity, but they were also
great traders and they managed to raise the city ’s population to 30,000, a great number for those times.

The flourishing era of Petra ended when the Romans, led by Pompey, arrived in the area and started exercising their influence.
They attacked the Nabataean Kingdom which was part of the Roman province Arabia and greatly influenced the local culture and way of life. The rock-carved amphitheater able to accommodate 8,000 people is a clear mark of Roman influence.
Eventually the power-hungry Romans took control of the precious trade routes and diverted them away from Petra, a move that started its decline.

After Petra slowly lost its wealth and power, it became lost to the western world until 1812, when Johan Ludwig Burckhardt, a Swiss student fluent in Arabic, that pretended to be an Indian Muslim,learned of a wondrous ancient city hidden among the mountains.
He traveled through the harsh terrain and claimed he wanted to place a sacrifice at the tomb of the prophet Aaron. He recorded what he had seen and published his findings, raising great interest
on an international level. Petra had been rediscovered.

Senin, 20 September 2010

Tempat Terdingin di Dunia.


Tempat Terdingin di Dunia.

Ilmuwan telah mengidentifikasi tempat yang dipercayai sebagai yang paling dingin di dunia.Lokasi yang dikenal dengan nama Ridge A itu terletak 4.030 meter dan berlokasi di dataran tinggi Antartika.
Saat musim dingin tempat itu memiliki rata-rata temperatur minus 70 derajat celcius dan sangat terpencil, sehingga diperkirakan belum ada manusia yang ke sana.

Sebuah tim ilmuwan dari Amerika dan Australiamengidentifikasi Ridge A dari gambar satelit dan model klimatologi saat mencari lokasi observasi terbaik di dunia.
Lokasi tersebut berada di teritorial antartika Australia 89 mil dari tempat observasi robot yang sudah lebih dulu ada.
Will Saunders, kepala studi mencatat bahwa selain suhu yang sangat rendah, lokasi tersebut memiliki kandungan air yang sangat rendah di udara.

“Di sana begitu tenang dan hampir tidak ada angin bahkan cuaca, ” katanya.
kombinasi dari seluruh elemen tersebut menjadikan tempat itu sangat sempurna untuk pos observasi astronomi. “Gambar-gambar astronomi yanh diambil dari Ridge A, paling tidak tiga kali lebih tajam dari tempat yang biasa digunakan para astronom, ”
kata Saunders.
“Karena langit lebih gelap dan tidak berawan, berarti teleskop sederhana memiliki kekuatan yang sama dengan teleskop terbesar dimana pun di muka
bumi. Para ilmuwan percaya jika teleskop yang diletakkan di lokasi tersebut dapat mendekati kualitas foto teleskop Hubble yang berada di luar angkasa.
Dan Saat ini tempat observasi terbaik di bumi terletak di atas sebuah gunung di Hawaii dan Chile.

sumber : http://www.kaskus.us/showthread.php?t=2381587, http://en.mercopress.com/2009/09/03/
antarcticas-ridge-a-worlds-coldest-driest-calmest-place-on-earth

Tempat Terkering di Dunia.

Kalau ditanya mengenai di mana sebenarnya tempat terkering di dunia? Sebagian besar orang pasti memikirkan tentang sebuah gurun pasir yang sangat panas.. tapi ternyata menurut penilitian tempat terkering di dunia adalah salah satu bagian di benua antartika (kutub selatan).

Sebagian besar wilayah antartika tidak pernah mendapatkan hujan selama dua juta tahun. Definisi gurun adalah sebuah tempat yang rata-rata curah hujannya adalah kurang dari 10 inci per tahun. rata-
rata di antartika memang sama sekitar 10 inci per tahun, tetapi banyak tempat di antartika yang tidak pernah mendapatkan hujan selama lebih dari dua juta tahun.

Sebuah area di Antartika (Kutub Selatan), yaitu Dry Valleys.
Telah diketahui bahwa di Dry Valleys tidak pernah diguyur hujan selama kurang lebih 2 juta tahun.
Tidak ada lapisan es, air, atau salju di daerah tersebut yang luasnya mencapai 4800 kilometer persegi. Alasan mengapa
tidak ada air di sana adalah karena adanya angin Katabatic,yaitu angin gunung yang sangat lembab. Angin tersebut meniup air keluar dari lembah.

Tapi selain menjadi tempat yang paling kering,ternyata antartika juga dinyatakan menjadi tempat yang paling basah (harus diperhatikan bahwa definisi tempat terbasah adalah daratan yang paling
basah) dan paling berangin (tujuh puluh persen air dunia ditampung di antartika dalam bentuk es dan anginnya berhembus dalam kecepatan paling kencang yang pernah tercatat).

Kondisi unik di antartika disebabkan oleh apa yang dinamakan angin katabatic. Angin ini muncul ketika udara yang dingin dan pekat ditarik ke bawah hanya dengan kekuatan gravitasi (bandingkan dengan
definisi angin yang menyatakan bahwa angin adalah masa udara yang bergerak karena ada perbedaan tekanan). Angin ini dapat mencapai kecepatan 320
km/jam, menguapkan semua yang basah dalam pergerakannya.

Keadaan di antartika mirip dengan mars, sehingga NASA menggunakan antartika untuk uji coba misi Viking.

Tempat yang paling kering berikutnya adalah Gurun Atacama di Chili. Beberapa wilayah di sana tidak pernah merasakan hujan selama 400 tahun dan rata-rata curah hujan tahunannya adalah 0,1 mm
per tahun (bandingkan dengan gurun sahara yang rata-rata curah hujannya 1 mm per tahun) Gurun Atacama ini 250 kali lebih kering dari gurun Sahara.

Calung Seni Sunda.

Calung

Calung adalah alat musik Sunda yang merupakan prototipe (purwarupa) dari angklung. Berbeda dengan angklung yang
dimainkan dengan cara digoyangkan, cara menabuh calung adalah dengan memukul batang (wilahan, bilah) dari ruas-ruas
(tabung bambu) yang tersusun menurut titi laras (tangga nada) pentatonik (da-mi-na-ti-la). Jenis bambu untuk pembuatan calung kebanyakan dari awi wulung (bambu hitam), namun ada pula yang dibuat dari awi temen (bambu yang berwarna putih).

Pengertian calung selain sebagai alat musik juga melekat dengan sebutan seni pertunjukan.
Ada dua bentuk calung Sunda yang dikenal, yakni calung rantay dan calung jinjing.

Calung Rantay
Calung rantay bilah tabungnya dideretkan dengan tali kulit waru (lulub) dari yang terbesar sampai yang terkecil, jumlahnya 7
wilahan (7 ruas bambu) atau lebih. Komposisi alatnya ada yang satu deretan dan ada juga yang dua deretan (calung indung dan calung anak/calung rincik). Cara memainkan calung rantay dipukul
dengan dua tangan sambil duduk bersilah, biasanya calung tersebut diikat di pohon atau bilik rumah (calung rantay Banjaran-
Bandung), ada juga yang dibuat ancak "dudukan" khusus dari bambu/kayu, misalnya calung tarawangsa di Cibalong dan Cipatujah, Tasikmalaya, calung rantay di Banjaran dan Kanekes/
Baduy.

Calung Jinjing
Adapun calung jinjing berbentuk deretan bambu bernada yang disatukan dengan sebilah kecil bambu (paniir). Calung jinjing terdiri atas empat atau lima buah, seperti calung kingking (terdiri dari 12 tabung bambu), calung panepas (5 /3 dan 2 tabung bambu), calung jongjrong(5 /3 dan 2 tabung bambu), dan calung
gonggong (2 tabung bambu).

Kelengkapan calung dalam perkembangannya dewasa ini ada yang hanya menggunakan calung kingking satu buah, panempas dua buah dan calung
gonggong satu buah, tanpa menggunakan calung jongjrong Cara memainkannya dipukul dengan tangan kanan memakai pemukul, dan tangan kiri menjinjing/memegang alat musik tersebut.

Sedangkan teknik menabuhnya antar lain dimelodi, dikeleter, dikemprang, dikempyung, diraeh, dirincik, dirangkep (diracek), salancar, kotrek dan solorok.

Jenis calung yang sekarang berkembang dan dikenal secara umum yaitu calung jinjing. Calung jinjing adalah jenis alat musik yang sudah lama dikenal oleh masyarakat Sunda, misalnya pada
masyarakat Sunda di daerah Sindang Heula - Brebes, Jawa tengah,
dan bisa jadi merupakan pengembangan dari bentuk calung rantay. Namun di Jawa Barat, bentuk kesenian ini dirintis
popularitasnya ketika para mahasiswa Universitas Padjadjaran (UNPAD) yang tergabung dalam Departemen Kesenian Dewan Mahasiswa (Lembaga kesenian UNPAD) mengembangkan bentuk
calung ini melalui kreativitasnya pada tahun 1961. Menurut salah seorang perintisnya, Ekik Barkah, bahwa pengkemasan calung jinjing dengan pertunjukannya diilhami oleh bentuk permainan pada pertunjukan reog yang memadukan unsur tabuh, gerak dan
lagu dipadukan. Kemudian pada tahun 1963 bentuk permainan dan tabuh calung lebih dikembangkan lagi oleh kawan-kawan dari Studiklub Teater Bandung (STB; Koswara Sumaamijaya dkk), dan
antara tahun 1964 - 1965 calung lebih dimasyarakatkan lagi oleh kawan-kawan di UNPAD sebagai seni pertunjukan yang bersifat hiburan dan informasi (penyuluhan (Oman Suparman, Ia
Ruchiyat, Eppi K., Enip Sukanda, Edi, Zahir, dan kawan-kawan), dan grup calung SMAN 4 Bandung (Abdurohman dkk).
Selanjutnya bermunculan grup-grup calung di masyarakat Bandung, misalnya Layung Sari, Ria Buana, dan Glamor (1970)
dan lain-lain, hingga dewasa ini bermunculan nama-nama idola pemain calung antara lain Tajudin Nirwan, Odo, Uko Hendarto, Adang Cengos, dan Hendarso.

Perkembangan kesenian calung begitu pesat di Jawa Barat, hingga ada penambahan beberapa alat musik dalam calung, misalnya kosrek, kacapi, piul (biola) dan bahkan ada yang melengkapi
dengan keyboard dan gitar. Unsur vokal menjadi sangat dominan,sehingga banyak bermunculan vokalis calung terkenal, seperti Adang Cengos, dan Hendarso.

Selasa, 07 September 2010

Dadali Manting ti Peuting ku Darso.

Lirik lagu Darso pop sunda Dadali Manting ti Peuting.

[*]
Dadali manting ti peting
ngalayang kakalayangan
Neangan nu lawas ilang
Baturna duka ka mana

[**]
Dadali manting ti peting
Ngalayang ka pilemburan
Hate mungguh ka pigandrung
Nu ilang kwas nu pundung

memang bongan manehna
Kacida rasa mokaha
Kaduhung sagede gunung
Kumaha nya pilampaheun

Dadali kabawa angin
Teu wasa nandangan lara
tos teu kadenge dei sorana
Boa-boa... Tapi palias teing..

Balik dei [**]

Balik dei [*]

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Dadali Manting ti Peuting ku Darso.